Nadir's ancestors were exiled to British India by King Amir Abdul Rahman after King Abdul Rahman realized their aspiration for power. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim.  The booty they had collected was loaded on 700 elephants, 4,000 camels, and 12,000 horses. He was driven back to the Soviet side by the Afghan army in April 1930, and by the end of 1931 most uprisings had been subdued. Invasion Nadir Shah became the ruler of Iran in 1736, his troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year. In various official documents, Nader recalled how he, Ottomans, Uzbeks, and Mughals shared a common Turkmen heritage. His death was announced on national television by President Karzai, who said "He was the servant of his people, the friend of … Nadir Shah Afshar was a military genius, but he was also a very harsh and suspicious ruler, who blinded his own son. Nader Shah was assassinated on 20 June 1747, at Quchan in Khorasan. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Erekle II assumed control over Kartli after Teimuraz II's death, thus unifying the two as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler in three centuries to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia, and due to the frantic turn of events in mainland Iran he would be able to maintain its autonomy until the advent of the Iranian Qajar dynasty. The first Durrani ruler, Ahmad Shah, known as the founder of the Afghan nation, united , At the age of 13, his father died and Nader had to find a way to support himself and his mother. "History". Some of his officers and courtiers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him, including two of his relatives: Muhammad Quli Khan, the captain … After what that man described miracles and pleasures of the heaven, the shah asked: “Are there such things as war and victory over the enemy in paradise?” When the man answered negatively, Nader replied: “How can there be any pleasure then?”.. Tomb of Zahir Shah On 23 July 2007, Zahir Shah passed away in the compound of the presidential palace in Kabul after prolonged illness. Some 3000 Persian soldiers were killed by Delhi-ites. Luckily Nadir Shah soon conquers Kandahar in 1738, and the boys are let out of prison. Nader was crowned Shah of Iran on March 8, 1736, a date his astrologers had chosen as being especially propitious, in attendance of an "exceptionally large assembly" composed of the military, religious and nobility of the nation, as well as the Ottoman ambassador Ali Pasha. His funeral prayer was held in the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar and was attended by large number of people. He had the chief mullah of Iran strangled after he was heard expressing support for the Safavids. The Mughal Empire was already weakened and reeling under the impact of bitter wars of succession of past three decades, after the death of Aurangzeb. Despite having a huge army at his disposal, in this campaign Nader showed little of his former military brilliance. On November 8, 1933, Mohammad Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan was shot and killed by an assassin while taking part in a high school awards ceremony at the royal palace in Kabul, Afghanistan. Managed by: Dr. Arshad Khan: Last Updated: October 30, 2014 Mohammad Yahya Khan, Governor of Kabul, 2. Zahir Shah was born on 15 October 1914, in a city quarter called Deh Afghanan (Afghans village) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Nader Shah has been described as "the last great Asiatic military conqueror".  In addition, he increased the number of soldiers under his command and reduced the number of soldiers under tribal and provincial control. Nadir Khan named a ten-member cabinet, consisting mostly of members of his family, and in September 1930 he called into session a loya jirga of 286 which confirmed his accession to the throne. Genealogy profile for Nadir Shah Nadir Shah (deceased) - Genealogy Genealogy for Nadir Shah (deceased) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its greatest extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman and the Persian Gulf, but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Iranian economy. Reza had behaved highhandedly and somewhat cruelly but he had kept the peace in Iran. The Mogul empire, which had been in a state of rapid decay for more than thirty years, since the death of Aurungzebe, received its death-blow from the irruption of Nadir Shah and the sack of the capital. Nadir Shah completely annihilated the Mughal Empire to an extent that they were literally left as puppets. 1883-1933 (Birth and death years) Biography Muhammad Nadir Shah (aka Khan) King of Afghanistan 1929-33. When … This concept resembled, in broad terms, the origin myths of 15th century Anatolian Turkmen dynasties. Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457, L. Lockhart, «Nadir Shah : A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources», W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», p. 48, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 3-4, W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», E. Tucker, «Nadir Shah’s Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran», p. 6, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 16, Rudi Matthee, «Nādir Shāh in Iranian Historiography: Warlord or National Hero?», Restoration of Tahmasp II to the Safavid throne, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant, Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East: A Country-by-Country Guide, "An Outline of the History of Persia During the Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)", Svat Soucek, a history of inner asia page 195: in 1740 Nader Shah, the new ruler of Iran, crossed the Amu Darya and, accepting the submission of Muhammad Hakim Bi which was then formalized by the acquiescence of Abulfayz Khan himself, proceeded to attack Khiva. Nader was probably brought up as a Shi'a  but later espoused the Sunni faith as he gained power and began to push into the Ottoman Empire.  Nader hoped that "Ja'farism" would be accepted as a fifth school (mazhab) of Sunni Islam and that the Ottomans would allow its adherents to go on the hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, which was within their territory.  An ethnic Hazara, Abdul Khaliq was immediately apprehended and tortured and then executed by quartering along with most of his relatives including his father and uncle. Safr 1151). In response, Nader Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah paid the consequence in handing over the keys of his royal treasury, and losing even the fabled Peacock Throne to the Iranian emperor. Without Nader, "eventual British [in India] would have come later and in a different form, perhaps never at all - with important global effects".. In Europe, Nader Shah was compared to Alexander the Great.  He recaptured the island of Bahrain from the Arabs. In 1740 Nadir Shah of Persia swept through Afghanistan into Mughal India during the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. Ernest Tucker, Nadir Shah's Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran Hardcover 150 pages (4 October 2006) Publisher: University Press of Florida Language: English ISBN 0-8130-2964-3 Michael Axworthy , Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day (Paperback) ISBN 0-14-103629-X Publisher Penguin 6 November 2008  This was the only time that he was ever defeated in battle. From the death of Nadir Shah in 1747 until the communist coup of April 1978, Afghanistan was governed by Pashtun rulers of the Abdali tribe. 1–16, 175–210. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.  His family lived a nomadic way of life. Starting from a young age, Napoleon Bonaparte also used to read about and admire Nader Shah. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. In March 1735, he signed a treaty with the Russians in Ganja by which the latter agreed to withdraw all of their troops from Iranian territory, those which had not been ceded back by the 1732 Treaty of Resht yet, resulting in the reestablishment of Iranian rule over all of the Caucasus and northern mainland Iran again. At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Iran had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Sultan Husayn, was a weak ruler. It was during his rule the notorious raids of Delhi by Nadir shah of Persia and the Afghan Ahmad Shah Abdali took place. Shah Safi II (±1647-1694), a drunkard and recluse, was said to have shut himself up for 7 years in the harem without emerging once. Spare my life and all I have shall be yours!’ He was still pleading when Salah Khan ran up, sword in hand and severed his head, which he dropped into the hands of a waiting soldier. Finished translations were presented to Nāder Shah in Qazvīn in June, 1741, who, however, was not impressed. Nader Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion. There is a story that says, having demanded the daughter of his defeated enemy Muhammad Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, to marry his son Nasrullah, he received the answer that a royal lineage up to the 7th generation was required for marriage with a princess from the House of Timur. The strong character of Nader Shah is indicated by the fact that having achieved much fame and glory, he did not allow his pleasers to find great ancestors in the darkness of his origin. India was used just as loot and he His father, Emam Qoli, was a herdsman who may also have been a coatmaker. He was adored, feared and cursed at the same time ”.. French orientalist Louis Bazin describes the personality of Nader Shah as follows: “Despite his obscure background, he looked born for the throne. Nader and his mother were among those who were carried off into slavery. He had no source of income other than the sticks he gathered for firewood, which he transported to the market. For the 18th-century Shah of Persia, see, King of the God granted Kingdom of Afghanistan and its dependencies, Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 474. When his orders had been carried out, however, Nader instantly regretted it, crying out to his courtiers, "What is a father? On 8 November 1933, Nadir Khan was visiting a high school and was shot dead by Abdul Khaliq during a graduation ceremony.  Many historians believe that Nader attacked the Mughal Empire to, perhaps, give his country some breathing space after previous turmoils. He may have perceived a need to unite disparate components of the ummah against the expanding power of Europe at that time, however his view of Muslim unity was different from later concepts of it. In 1931, the King promulgated a new constitution. Although his efforts to improve the army did not bear fruit immediately, by the time of his Lockhart, L., "Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources", London: Luzac & Co., 1938, 21 : Stephen Erdely and Valentin A. Riasanovski. The Story of Mashhad Most of the history is closely related to the 8 th Shia Imam, Imam Reza. In Khorasan, Nader at first submitted to the local Afghan governor of Mashhad, Malek Mahmud, but then rebelled and built up his own small army. Bring me my weapons!’ The assassins were struck with fear by these words and wanted to escape, but ran straight into the two chiefs of the murder-conspiracy, who allayed their fears and made them go into the tent again. In 1912, Nadir assisted in helping the Afghan government defeat the Khost rebellion. As he moved into the Mughal territories, he was loyally accompanied by his Georgian subject and future king of eastern Georgia, Erekle II, who led a Georgian contingent as a military commander as part of Nader's force. Nadir Khan was born on 9 April 1883 in Dehradun, British India, in the Musahiban branch of the Royal dynasty of Afghanistan (of the Mohammadzai section of Barakzai Pashtuns). Nadir Shah at the sack of Delhi - Battle scene with Nader Shah on horseback, possibly by Muhammad Ali ibn Abd al-Bayg ign Ali Quli Jabbadar, mid-18th century, Museum of … After sacking its capital at Delhi , he plundered the treasuries of the Mughal emperors , and hauled the wealth westward, over the Hindu Kush , towards his kingdom of Persia. Nader Shah became the Persian ruler in 1730. In earlier times, Mashhad was known as a small region called Sanabad near the ancient city of Tus. In 1743, he conquered Oman and its main capital Muscat. Get full address, contact info, background report and more! They entered the enclosure of the royal tent, pushing and smashing their way through any obstacles, and penetrated into the sleeping quarters of that ill-starred monarch. Many years later, when he was returning in triumph from his conquest of Delhi, he led the army to his birthplace and made a speech to his generals about his early life of deprivation. Nadir Shah in September 1741. on, an account in German of the expeditions of Nadir Shah to India, the deeds of the Mughal Shah Al In 1747 after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi mur In 1740, it was conquered  The rest of the Iranian territories in the Caucasus, comprising modern-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Dagestan broke away into various khanates. He said, "You now see to what height it has pleased the Almighty to exalt me; from hence, learn not to despise men of low estate." Erekle II and Teimuraz II, who, in 1744, had been made the kings of Kakheti and Kartli respectively by Nader himself for their loyal service, capitalized on the eruption of instability, and declared de facto independence. Its ruler Muhammad Shah was powerless to reverse this disintegration. Legend has it that in 1704, when he was about 17, a band of marauding Uzbeks invaded the province of Khorasan, where Nader lived with his mother.  Joseph Stalin used to read about Nader Shah and admired him, calling him, along with Ivan the Terrible, a teacher. Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also looted the Koh-i-Noor (meaning "Mountain of Light" in Persian) and Darya-ye Noor (meaning "Sea of Light") diamonds. Nader Shah (en persa: نادر شاه ) (su verdadero nombre era Nader Qoli Beig) (22 de octubre de 1688 - junio de 1747) fue un sah de Persia, fundador de la dinastía afsárida que reinó desde 1736 hasta su muerte. the death of the great Safavi leader Nadir Shah in 1747, indigenous Pashtuns, who became known as the Durrani, began a period of at least nominal rule in Afghanistan that lasted until 1978. . Nader Shah transformed the Shahsevan, a nomadic group living around Azerbaijan whose name literally means "shah lover", into a tribal confederacy which defended Iran against the neighbouring Ottomans and Russians. His troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year. , Nader's focus on common Turkmen descent was designed to establish a broad political framework that could tie him, more closely than his Safavid predecessors, to both Ottomans and Mughals.  Nader's Indian campaign alerted the British East India Company to the extreme weakness of the Mughal Empire and the possibility of expanding to fill the power vacuum. After Nadir Shah's death, the Kohinoor came into the acquisition of one of his generals, Ahmad Shah Durrani. In his last years, Nader became increasingly paranoid, ordering the assassination of large numbers of suspected enemies. After his death, he was succeeded by his nephew Ali Qoli, who renamed himself Adil Shah ("righteous king"). Nadir Ali Shah died in the early hours of Tuesday, 8 October 1974 (21st Ramadan 1394 AH) at the age of 77 years. , Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur, the previous conquerors from Central Asia. New revolts broke out and Nader crushed them ruthlessly, building towers from his victims' skulls in imitation of his hero Timur. A Timur descendent, Nadir shah usurped the throne in Persia and seized Kandahar and Kabul. While Nader was absent in the east, Tahmasp tried to assert himself by launching a foolhardy campaign to recapture Yerevan. For works benefiting from the latest research see the “More information” section at the bottom of these pages. His father was Mohammad Yusuf Khan and his mother was Sharaf Sultana Hukumat Begum. Tahmasp made Nader governor over many eastern provinces, including his native Khorasan, and Tahmasp's sister was given in marriage to Nader's son. Despite its appearance as a constitutional monarchy, the document effectively instituted a Royal oligarchy, and popular participation was merely an illusion. He faced Topal again with a larger force and defeated and killed him. Mohammed Nadir Shah (Pashto: محمد نادر شاه – born Mohammed Nadir; 9 April 1883 – 8 November, 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in 1933. His mother died in captivity.  The plunder seized from India was so much that Nader stopped taxation in Iran for a period of three years following his return. He is extremely generous, especially to his warriors, and generously rewards all who have distinguished themselves in his service. Nader decided he needed to regain the initiative as soon as possible to save his position because revolts were already breaking out in Iran. Muhammad Nadir Shah (Pashto: محمد نادر شاه, Persian: محمد نادر شاه – born Muhammad Nadir Khan; 9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. What is a son? Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused.  His reforms may have strengthened the country, but they did little to improve Iran's suffering economy. Nader belonged to the Turkoman Afshar tribe, a semi-nomadic tribe settled in Khorasan in northeastern Iran, which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. " Soon afterwards, Nader started executing the nobles who had witnessed his son's blinding. Consequences and Takeaways. Nevertheless, the repulsive greed and unprecedented cruelties that wore his subjects, ultimately led to his fall, and the extremes and horrors that were caused by him, made Persia cry. Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Pierre Bayen wrote about Nader Shah the following: “He was the horror of the Ottoman Empire, the conqueror of India, the ruler of Persia and all of Asia. 1924 to 1926 he was adored, feared and cursed at the.! Health declined markedly, women, and stabbed to death to 30,000 citizens men... Karim Khan founded the Zand dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year three... 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